yes and no.
It's not like the NBA Live series where the files will automatically transfer over, but it isnt a terribly difficult process.
For example, 2K has used the same texture template for faces and uniforms since 2k9. So technically I could load a 2k9 texture in the mod tool, export it, and then import it into a 2k11 iff file and it will work. It might need an alpha layer added to it, but it will work.
So as long as you know how to use the mod tool, and assuming 2K doesn't change the iff file format enough to require a new tool, you should be able to export and import all your texture patches to 2k12. Rosters, global lighting mods, and any 3D edits will not transfer though.